Computer Hardware and Software

Computer is the combination of two things Software and Hardware


1- Computer Hardware:

The physical parts of the computer are called hardware. Hardware can be seen or touched by user. The components of computer hardware are as follows:

  • Input devices such as keyboard, mouse, microphone etc.
  • The Central Processing Unit (CPU)
  • Output devices such as printer, monitor etc.
  • Storage devices such as disc drive, hard drive etc.
  • Memory chips such as RAM, ROM, etc.

2- Computer software:

The software or program is a set of instructions arranged in a particular sequence to perform some task. A computer work s according to the instructions written in software.

There are two major types of software:

  • System software
  • Application Software

2.1- Categories of computer software

There are two categories of software

  1. system software
  2. Application software

       1- System Software

System software consists of the programs that control or maintain the operations of the computer and its devices.

Software types

system software serves as the interface between the user, the application software, and the computer’s hardware. Two types of system software are the operating system and utility programs.

System software controls the basic operations as follows

  • Managing files and folders on the disks.
  • Saving data on the disks.
  • Ready computer to work on the computer.
  • Internet operations.
  • Playing games on the computer.

      2- Application Software

Application software consists of programs designed to make users more productive and/or assist them with personal tasks. It helps a computer user to perform specific tasks. Users use application software according their needs.


Some examples of application software are following

  • Word processing software, Microsoft Word
  • Spreadsheet software, Microsoft excel
  • Database software,  Microsoft Access, SQL
  • Presentation software. Microsoft Power Point
  • Graphics software , Corel Draw

The Difference Between System Software and Application software

The difference between system software and application software is as following

System Software Application software
1.     System software is used to run a computer hardware Application software is used to complete the requirement of a user.
2.     It is a general purpose software It is a specific purpose software
3.     It executes all the time in the computer It executes only when is needed
4.     System software is essential for a computer to run properly Application software is not essential for a computer to work properly.
5.     System software is used to manage the computer resources Application software is used to solve a problem of a user.


Read Also

The Different Types of Hardware Units.

A computer system can be divided into the following hardware units:

  • Input Unit
  • Output unit
  • System unit

Input Unit:

The input unit consists of input devices. The device that carries the instructions and data into the computer is called Input devices. It receives data in human readable form, transforms it into machine readable form and then carries to the computer. Some important input devices of input unit are as follows:

  • Keyboard is used to feed textual data
  • Mouse is used for image data
  • Microphone is used for voice data
  • Scanner is used for image data

Output Unit:

The output unit consists of Output devices. After processing the data needs some means to display the result to the user. The device that shows the result to the user is called Output device. It receives the information from computer in machine readable form, transform it into human readable form and then display to the user. Some important output devices of output unit area as follows:

  • Monitor is used to display text and images on screen
  • Printer is used to get output on paper
  • Speaker is used to receive voice output

System Unit: 

System unit is actual computer. The system unit is enclosed in an iron rectangular casing and look like a box. It has many component fixed in it. It keeps the main active components like microprocessor, RAM and hard disk drive etc.


Hardware Units

Leave a Reply